Loss of Innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the Invention of Childhood Sexuality Around 1900
The All is in me and I am in the All. There is no difference between God-All and human soul. Man is part of the Totality, a particular being. And yet he is also God.
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They refer to fundamentals. Neither faith nor dogma plays any role here. Eine deutsche Theologie [The Book of the Perfect Life: A German Theology] of that since God is in us, a perfect life can be lived without abnegation of the self or total surrender of the self to God. Judging it desirable to preserve a link between the new Germanic religion and German Christianity, Schwaner subsequently distanced himself from Fahrenkrog and the radically pagan Germanische Glaubensgemeinschaft.
In English, see the references to Hauer in Doris L.
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Metzler Verlag, ], pp. On Heidegger, see John D. Charles B. Guignon Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. According to Thomas Nipperdey, religion was an essential component of all Lebensreform movements. Religion im Umbruch: Deutschland [Munich: C. Beck, ], pp. XXV, 11, 1 st issue for March, , pp.
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XXVI, 22, 2 nd issue for August, , pp. A tribute to Karl Marx on the th anniversary of his birth appeared in the number for April-June The faith of both is deep-rooted, farseeing, and generous.
In both, there is a striving after spiritual freedom […]. Coole and M. Beck, ], p. Also George L. Its cultural and ideological significance is now fully recognized and there is an extensive literature on it. For a comprehensive overview, see Wolfgang R. Kai Buchholz et al. The classic study of George L. Religion im Umbruch: Deutschland , p. See also n. Brill, ], ch. Most of the testimonies, not least his own, were sharply critical of anti-Semitism. Metzler, , p. Julius Posener zum George L. Friedrich-Wilhelm Haack, Wotans Wiederkehr , pp.
In the s ever more such societies continued to be founded see sample lists in Haack, Wotans Wiederkehr , pp. The Princess was probably one of its many readers; the Edda figures explicitly in her later fictional writing as just such a source book of wisdom and ethical example. Teil Frankfurt a. Maasddorff, Die Religion und die Philosophie der Zukunft , 2 nd edn. Die Quelle unserer Entartung [Jahwe or Jesus? The Origin of our Degeneration] Leipzig ; 2 nd edn. German, , pp. Oldenbourg, , pp. Justus H.
Christianity purged of all Judaic and Roman influences — was for Aryans only. Full document in Peter Matheson, ed. Clark, ], pp. John Lees, 2 vols. London and New York: John Lane, ; 1 st edn. German , vol. Berlin-Schlachtensee; Volkserzieher-Verlag, , vol. Stuttgart: Kutbrod Verlag, ; 1 st edn. In the period after World War II some Germanic religious groups denied that the importance they had attached to race had had anything to do with the destructive racism of the National Socialists.
Though a champion of a Nordic-Germanic religion, an advocate of Aufnordung restoring the Nordic racial component in the German people , and an early supporter of the National Socialists, Wachler had a Jewish grandparent. It is admitted that a provision was subsequently introduced requiring proof of pure German ancestry as a condition of membership in the GGG.
I also swear to keep my blood pure through an appropriate marriage and to raise my children in this spirit. It is claimed, however, that this provision was never dogmatically enforced and that Fahrenkrog stuck by Wachler even as anti-Jewish measures grew in intensity. Fahrenkrog is quoted as maintaining through the s that the GGG was neither anti-Semitic nor anti-Christian, that it was non-political and that it sought only toleration of all creeds and all religious groups. But who are we?
We are the spirit and the religious aspiration of our ancestors and forefathers by way of Eckehart and Goethe down to the present day. Die Germanische Glaubensgemeinschaft , pp. For the first time in the German qualification system, the number of new entrants into university and the number of entrants into dual vocational education and training VET was just about the same in the past few years.
Up to the beginning of this century the number of entrants into dual VET was nearly twice as high as the number of entrants into university studies Fig. This quantitative shift in the relationship between the major educational sectors invigorated the discussion on the future of the German skill formation system as a whole: Will the system change towards higher education or will the traditional model of dual vocational education remain the backbone of German industry and the educational model for the majority of employees?
A third option would be a new model of skill formation, integrating both systems into a new educational order. Entrants to VET dual system and higher education — The quantitative relationship between both sectors is demonstrated by the development in new entrants. Until the mids higher education was reserved for a small group of students, in particular from the middle classes. By that time, vocational education was the main pathway into qualified employment for the majority of young people Fig. Then, education reform and educational expansion created new dynamics: by the late s entrants to university—and later to colleges of applied sciences Fachhochschule — started to continuously increase, whereas entrants to VET, with some temporary upward and downward turns, continuously decreased.
The question of possible developments of the German skill formation system not only concerns employment and economic growth; it also has an impact on social structure and industrial relations. In Germany this question is currently being discussed mainly from three perspectives, which are the points of departure for this paper:.
First, there is the politically pragmatic point of view, mainly supported by the social partners, focussing on their domain of vocational education and training. Given the expansion of higher education, they are concerned about the future of the dual VET system. This refers to the attractiveness of dual vocational education compared to higher education with respect to the demographic decrease of school-leavers in the coming 2 decades and the reform of higher education within the Bologna process Kuda et.
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It is not surprising that this question is mainly addressed by the social partners, in particular by the trade unions: their possibilities for recruiting new members and for participation in society are at risk. In the frame of reference of vocational training policy as well as higher education policy the steep increase in the number and proportion of first-year students has provoked a critical debate about this development under the topos of the accelerating academisation of the labour market and the employment system. A second perspective is based on the new institutionalism in social sciences.
Relating to the discussion on the transformation of the German model, this perspective is important and therefore will be discussed further. A third theoretical perspective, particularly widespread in higher education research, is based on the assumption that mass higher education is the appropriate qualification model for the emerging knowledge society. According to this approach one of the reasons for the shift from vocational training to higher education is a fundamental transformation in the patterns of knowledge production from experience-based knowledge to theoretical knowledge in different forms.
Because of this, higher education institutions have become besides other non-university research institutions dynamic places for knowledge generation and dissemination, either in a discipline or in a more application oriented context Gibbons et al. And this process is accompanied by some changes in class structures, especially by the emergence and extension of the social classes of higher- and lower-grade professionals Erikson and Goldthorpe , p.
In view of the historical institutional separation of the main educational sectors discussed in Sect. Against the background of recent developments, we will then discuss the significance of the changes in vocational education and training and higher education with respect to the social structure and the labour market Sect.
After that, we will scrutinise the factors and conditions determining these shifts. These will be analysed from two perspectives: the changing educational behavior and the changing structures in the labour market and employment Sect. Finally we will describe some new attempts at linking vocational and higher education Sect. This includes new organizational arrangements between both sectors as well as new governance structures.
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