The Council of State played an integral part in the conflict between constitutional legality and royal prerogative that colored politics under the Restoration. Deriving from the corps of professional administrators who counseled Old Regime monarchs and bearing the name of one of the principal cogs in Bonaparte's political machine, the Council of State was linked to both monarchic absolutism and Napoleonic authoritarianism. The liberal opposition particularly disliked it, objecting to its extra-legal character.
When the Council of State was reorganized by an ordinance of August 26, , it moved to the royal palace of the Louvre. The oath of new members of the Council of State was revised to include loyalty to the charter as well as the king, and the government was no longer to have the power, called destitution , to remove unwanted council members. A final exercise of this power, however, gave an ultra-royalist cast to the new Council of State.
Together with the description of the ensemble in the Salon livret of , these remains give an idea of the decorative program. Although visitors to the Salon of could view the new Council of State rooms, the decorations were intended for an elite audience. On the ceiling of the principal assembly hall is M. The event transpires with a graciousness absent from Jaley's commemorative medal, which apparently served as Blondel's model see Fig.
The monarchs and legists of the Old Regime looking on approve. To suggest the confidence inspired by the law, a putto sleeps on an open book inscribed CODE. A hostile critic remarked in the Journal du Commerce that "young France has armed itself against the arbitrariness of the ordinances and decisions of the Council of State, not by sleeping on the codes, but by studying them with perseverance.
In associating the charter with divine will and traditional Bourbon largess, Blondel's ceiling painting echoes the sentiments of the charter's preamble. This didactic program continues in the coving, where monarchic precedents for the charter are illustrated in illusionistic bronze reliefs. Here Christian virtues enact an unfamiliar constitutional pantomime. The Mosaic posturing of the putto Spirit of the Laws—like the obtrusively tangible anchor of Hope—points to that uncomfortable mixture of the literal and the ideal characteristic of late Davidian history painting.
The unintentional. The royal throne in the room with Blondel's ceiling paintings symbolically referred to the king's presiding, by proxy, over the Council of State. On the ceiling of the fourth room Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse rephrased in Bourbon terms the Napoleonic theme of divine legislative inspiration.
The persuasive power of the allegory, however, is blunted by a discursive specificity of historical and contemporary reference that lends an air of masquerade to Mauzaisse's legislators. Legendary legislators as prototypes of the French monarch were repeatedly invoked in the Council of State rooms.
Beneath Blondel's octagonal ceiling painting in the assembly hall hung his portraits of the divinely inspired legislators Lycurgus, Solon, Numa, and Moses—the last seated in stiff majesty like a salvador mundi Fig. Delacroix's large canvas 3. The emphatic gestures, bold chiaroscuro, and warm tonality of the sketch suggest that Delacroix brought to this motif an operatic amplitude and a material opulence that recall the contemporary Death of Sardanapalus.
Justinian's extravagantly stylized pose suggests at once the flux of inspiration and the aloof authority of the lawgiver. Contemporary accounts of the lost painting speak of jewel-encrusted draperies that must have made the Justinian seem all the more remote and exotic. Delacroix's representation of the attributes of divine inspiration seems deliberate, for Justinian himself was principally a compiler and codifier of earlier Roman law.
But the emphasis on the divine origins of law was also in keeping with the decorative cycle for which the work was painted.
Illustrations of heroic Old Regime magistrates refer obliquely to the violence of recent French history. Among these was the most admired work of the cycle, Paul Delaroche's pathos-ridden Death of President Duranti destroyed in the Palais d'Orsay fire, In invoking divinely inspired legislators and glorifying the Bourbon monarchy, the decorative program of the Council of State rooms embodied the aspiration of the regime to bolster the authority of the monarch.
Given the resurgence of piety under the Restoration, it is not surprising that Moses, who occupies a place of honor in Mauzaisse's ceiling painting for the Council of State, was an attractive legislative motif after The roundheaded tablets of the law were reconverted to Catholicism and stripped of association with the rights of man in the hushed interior of the Expiatory Chapel , which Chateaubriand thought "perhaps the most remarkable" building in Paris.
In using Mosaic imagery to aggrandize Bonald's battle against the hubristic fallacies of the Enlightenment and the Revolution, Lamartine was following Chateaubriand, who described Bonald's idol Bossuet, the seventeenth-century theologian and historian, in similar terms. Lamartine who, like Hugo, eventually cast off his youthful ultra-royalism later distanced himself from his poem, asserting that when he wrote it he had not read Bonald but considered him "the honest and eloquent apostle of a sublime and hazy theocracy that would serve as the poetry of our political affairs if God deigned to name his earthly viceroys and ministers.
Victor Hugo used similarly political references to Moses in one of his most reactionary odes, "Le Sacre de Charles X" , written in honor of the splendid neo-medieval coronation of Louis XVIII's retrograde brother. The poem concludes with a prayer that God—whom the monarch has seen face-to-face, as if on Sinai—impart to the royal brow "two rays from your head. In light of the association of Moses with royalism and counter-revolution in the Council of State rooms and in the poetry of Lamartine and Hugo, it is surprising that liberals also appealed to the authority of the biblical legislator during the Bourbon Restoration.
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Benedetti, in the role of Moses, appeared in a simple and sublime costume copied from the statue by Michelangelo in San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome; he had not addressed twenty words to the Eternal One before my received wisdom vanished; I no longer saw a charlatan changing his cane into a serpent. Rossini's hero, clad in imitation of Michelangelo's revered figure which will concern us later , revealed to Stendhal that Moses was an enemy of royal tyranny.
Joseph Salvador publicly claimed Moses for the liberal cause in a controversial book of The liberal paper Le Globe responded enthusiastically:. There is a people more antique than Greek and Roman antiquity, whose rule of law, equality, liberty, utility, nationality, and intellectual superiority were highly acclaimed and recognized in the despotic Orient before the development of occidental civilization: the Hebrew people. The man who deserves to be considered the true founder of free and legal government.
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Published only four years after sacrilege had been officially defined as a capital crime a measure Bonald endorsed , the book produced an explosive reaction in the right-wing press. Salvador's politically charged view of Moses had a comic counterpart in a pair of anti-royalist Decalogue prints c. A "Ministerial Decalogue," in contrast, prescribes fraud, corruption, and hypocrisy under the sign of the backward-walking crayfish, stock symbol of retrograde ultra-royalism Fig.
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In July the ministers of Charles X issued four ordinances intended to stifle freedom of the press and break legislative opposition to the crown. This unpopular action inflamed the liberal opposition that had gained an unlikely ally in Chateaubriand, who, soured by his loss of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in and reborn as an outspoken opponent of press censorship, was scandalized by the ordinances, which presumed, in an Old Regime spirit comme au temps du bon plaisir , that the king's authority superseded the law.
Popular indignation over the four ordinances fueled a successful uprising that demonstrated the tenacious vitality of the principle inaugurated with the Constitution of that "in France no authority is superior to the law. No longer would the king have blanket authority, granted by article 14 of the Bourbon charter, to make "the regulations and ordinances necessary for the.
Duke Louis-Philippe d'Orleans, lieutenant general of France and head of the younger branch of the French royal family, was elevated to the throne to protect the constitutional principles Charles X's ministers had disregarded. The new monarch's relationship to the Bourbon dynasty was complicated because his. Louis-Philippe's distant blood kinship with his deposed predecessor did not guarantee his mandate to rule.
Legal probity, symbolized by the inaugural oath of allegiance to the new constitutional Charter of , invested the new king with authority; he acknowledged as much by insisting on legal rectitude in the daily business of government. An unofficial bronze commemorative medal by Joseph-Arnold Pingret expressed the idea that the revolution of had reestablished the law Figs. Pingret's representation of the law as roundheaded tablets recalls any number of revolutionary images of the constitution and of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen; the revival of this revolutionary iconographic tradition under the July Monarchy was appropriate to the regime's professed veneration of the law.
Nonetheless, the perception of the law was different from what it had been during the Revolution of Under Louis-Philippe, the law was not a miraculous source of national regeneration but a shield defending order and property. Thus Guizot said that Louis-Philippe considered the law "the best shield for the throne as well as for the citizenry. This conception of the law developed from the dangers faced by the regime.
It became apparent at the outset of Louis-Philippe's reign that the regime represented the interests of the prosperous middle class and sympathized with neither the egalitarian sentiment nor the bellicose nationalism of those who had brought down the Bourbon Restoration. The July Monarchy was menaced in its early. Very Good! The Hall of was part of the historical museum Louis-Philippe created in the Palace of Versailles to glorify the history of France and to legitimize his own regime.
The brash literal character. The July Monarchy's cult of the law was expressed most elaborately in the decoration of the Palais-Bourbon. In Jean-Baptiste-Jules de Joly , who succeeded Bernard Poyet as the architect responsible for the legislative palace, directed the alteration and enlargement of the building.
At the opening of the annual legislative session, Louis-Philippe would go to the Palais-Bourbon to deliver the "Speech from the Throne" to the legislature. A contemporary print shows him mounting the palace steps at the head of a vast retinue Fig. As he entered the palace via the new Salle Louis-Philippe Fig.
In Protecting Law , facing the entrance to the Salle Louis-Philippe, the tablets of the law are set in a panoply that features the caduceus of commerce and a hand of justice. To the left, a rustic family sleeps amid the tools and fruit of its labor under the protection of an armed woman. To the right, a book is inscribed by an infant-bearing mother to show the emanation of the law from the will of its beneficiaries cf.
Avenging Law , above the entrance, shows the nurturing of civilization under the fierce guardianship of the law.
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A philosopher resembling Socrates, protected by two winged figures, reclines beside attributes of industry, the arts, and science. Whereas Protecting Law has a uniform relief and smooth ground, Avenging Law has a more irregular pattern and a rough ground that subtly dramatizes the theme of crime and punishment.
The firm and meticulous contour of the study for Protecting Law contrasts with the nervous vitality of that for Avenging Law ; this contrast echoes the thematic counterpoint of the two lunettes more emphatically than do differences in ground texture and relief pattern in the finished marbles. Otherwise, the relief sculptures remained faithful to the drawings where, in the language of official allegory, homage is rendered to the entities the July Monarchy held scared: law, property, public order, agriculture, industry, and commerce. In these works, the revolutionary association of the law with regeneration and natural rights has been replaced by reference to material prosperity, punishment, and protection.
The pious glorification of the law in Triqueti's Protecting Law resembles that of "Les Laboureurs," a section of Lamartine's book-length poem Jocelyn , written in the fall of Describing a scene of agricultural labor and rest, the poet sees a reflection of divine law in the earthly law of labor and the bond of familial love:. A member of the Chamber of Deputies since , Lamartine had ample opportunity to view Triqueti's reliefs in the Salle Louis-Philippe. It is society itself. After entering the palace through the Salle Louis-Philippe, the king would receive deputations from the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers in the new Salon du Roi—a square room with a throne set into a niche facing the entrance from the Salle Louis-Philippe Fig.
Delacroix's decoration of this room with allegories of justice, war, commerce, agriculture,. The mural decoration above the throne niche—the first part visible, according to the artist, to someone entering the room—is devoted to the theme of justice. Delacroix has indicated justice as the foremost of royal virtues. But only the "inviolable and sacred" king—who held all executive power art.
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