Figure 1. Developing country foods with different levels of sophistication. Many developing countries produce a variety of foods which include fruits, vegetables, meat, seafood and dairy products, as well as processed foods and beverages Fig.
These are served through delivery channels as diverse as you will find in the more developed countries in Australasia, Southern Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Many of these are produced by staff trained and equipped to make high quality products. They are produced in facilities ranging from very basic to state-of-the-art Fig.
The role and importance of food safety and quality systems FSQS in the food industry of developing countries and emerging economies, therefore, will depend on the level of sophistication and focus of their domestic industry and, specifically, the subsector of the industry from which the product comes. Examples of the some foods produced in developing countries.
Examples of different kinds of food processing systems in developing countries. Many traditional products are already being exported to markets globally. Traditional ethnic cuisines are now increasingly an inseparable part of mainstream diets throughout the world. Chinese cuisine, Indian curries, Thai food, and traditional Asian cuisine are now not only available in specialty restaurants, but are a standard part of meal choices in Europe and North America. Many of these are available as authentic meal options in convenient formats in the major multiples a such as Whole Foods Fig.
In addition to these prepared meals, many of the other foods and beverages consumed in the South have been adopted by the more developed country markets. These traditional developing country foods now included in global diets have expanded to include a wide range of fruits and vegetables, produce, spices, prepared foods, and beverages. Most of the produce that form a part of this trend usually undergo further processing after purchase, including various forms of preparation and cooking.
In the initial stages when foods from developing countries started being sold in metropolitan marketplaces, they were originally sold mainly to the ethnic community familiar with them. Many have transitioned and are now being sold to mainstream populations and are therefore present in several conventional retail outlets alongside the prepared foods mentioned previously. Some of these products have been used by consumers around the world for decades by persons who perhaps even today remain unaware of their origin, examples being Angostura Bitters and Pickapeppa Sauce Fig.
In essence then, the nature of our global food supply is changing to become much more diverse and this will bring new opportunities, even as new challenges will also emerge. Examples of standard bearers and market leading products from developing countries on sale in the major multiples. Many developing country exports are traditional foods that have continued to maintain old traditions and practices.
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These sometimes present interesting challenges for validation of their safety in a manner that meets the requirements of developed country market regulators. A prime example of this is the ackee Fig. The aspect of the food industry that produces mainly for local consumption, although not export oriented as other aspects of emerging market food industries tend to be, is no less diverse as they face, in many cases, relentless pressure from domestic and imported competition.
Depending on the country, the sector may produce a wide variety of products ranging from the relatively basic to sophisticated. Regardless of the nature of the food being imported or produced in different countries, the factors affecting the future development of the sector will be the same as they are elsewhere. It is important, therefore for both the producers and exporters, as well as importers in developed countries, to become aware of the international trends that are driving the development of the global food industry and equip themselves to meet the demands as they seek to have their products become leaders in the global marketplace.
Business Food Encyclopedia Drink Industries by Ken Albala Gary Allen
We will examine these throughout this book, starting with this chapter, and discuss how they relate to the overwhelming and increasing influence of FSQS in global food trade. Jamaican ackee on the tree. Read full chapter. Philip P. The U. National and international confidence in the safety of the products of this industry is important.
The greatest threats to this industry are disease and contamination. There is an urgent need to improve and validate methods for detecting bioterrorist agents in food products. The White House a : 37 states that although rapid use of threat information could prevent an attack from spreading, serious institutional barriers and disincentives e. An attack on the food supply can take place at numerous points between the farm and human consumption.
Examples are farms, processing plants, retail stores, and restaurants. Whether domestic or imported, food could be subject to biological or chemical agents. An illustration of a terrorist attack on food occurred in when members of an Oregon religious group, who followed an Indian-born guru named Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, secretly applied salmonella bacteria to a restaurant salad bar to poison residents of a community to influence an election. Over people became ill.
Disgruntled employees have caused other incidents of food sabotage. The Centers for Disease Control CDC estimates that 76 million illnesses, , hospitalizations, and 5, deaths occur annually due to food contaminated from various causes Mead, et al. Although unintentional, the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Britain showed the high expense from disease in the food chain.
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States also conduct inspections. The EPA's role is to protect public health and the environment from pesticides and promote safer pest management Congressional Budget Office, : 42— Laws that defend the agriculture and food system against terrorism, disasters, and emergencies include the Homeland Security Act of It created the DHS that is responsible for consolidating federal response to emergencies, including agroterrorism, into a single plan called the National Response Plan.
Another law, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of , also called the Bioterrorism Act, bolstered the FDA's ability to identify domestic and foreign facilities that provide food, inspect food imports, and notify food businesses that become involved in the contamination of food supplies. Regulations under the authority of this law require food businesses in the chain of supply to maintain records to identify the immediate previous sources and subsequent recipients of food.
The Project BioShield Act of requires action to expand and expedite the distribution of vaccines and treatments to combat potential bioterrorism agents Congressional Budget Office, : Protection issues and strategies for the agriculture and food industry include the following Chalk, ; Congressional Budget Office, : 44 :. Establish more extensive labeling and tracking systems for animals and food products to help pinpoint sources of contamination. Establish full tracking of ownership of the most hazardous materials e.
Establish enhanced incentives and protections for reporting new incidents of food contamination, improper sales of hazardous materials, unsafe processing and handling procedures, and incomplete inspections.
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Modify vulnerable practices in the industry. Increase the number of inspectors in the food chain and strengthen the capabilities of forensic investigations for early detection and containment. Foster improved links among the agriculture, food, and intelligence communities. It offers Model Food Security Plans that are voluntary for egg, meat, and poultry facilities. These plans are risk-based and include how to identify threats, such as disgruntled employees or terrorists.
The FSIS Security Guidelines for Food Processors contains information on food security management; access controls; internal security; and security for slaughter and processing, storage, water and ice, and mail. About one in six jobs are linked to agriculture in this trillion-dollar industry. National and international confidence in the safety of its products is important. The greatest threats to it are disease and contamination. This sector is dependent on the water, transportation, energy, chemical, and other sectors U.
Departments of Homeland Security and Agriculture and U. Food and Drug Administration, ; Olson, 1. Regulations under the authority of this law require food businesses in the supply chain to maintain records to identify the immediate previous sources and subsequent recipients of food. The Project BioShield Act of requires action to expand and expedite the distribution of vaccines and treatments to combat potential bioterrorism agents Congressional Budget Office, Another challenge is communications among agencies; for example, the CBP is unaware of 68 percent of imported food refused by the FDA.
He writes that, although multiple agencies inspect imported food, about 98 percent are uninspected and susceptible to tampering. Protection issues and strategies for the agriculture and food industry include the following U. Food and Drug Administration,; U. Food and Drug Administration, ; U. It also maintains a Food Defense and Emergency Response.
The Grocery Manufacturers Association maintains a food safety education and training program. Ian K. Many industrial processes require steam, including food industries and paper-making. Since raising steam at these higher pressures has a minor effect on the fuel consumption or the price of the boiler, considerable savings can be made in the total plant cost because the associated higher density steam can be transmitted in pipes of smaller diameter. The opportunity thus exists to replace the local PRVs by expanders and thereby recover power from the expansion process. The shaft power, thus extracted, can be used to drive a generator to produce electricity and thereby reduce electricity consumption from the public utility.
It is important to appreciate that, when the steam is required for a heating process, any power extracted from the steam must be compensated by the combustion of additional fuel in the boiler to increase the steam production rate so that the steam leaving the expander has the same energy as that leaving the PRV, from which no energy is extracted. This is because the additional fuel burned only has to supply energy equal to the mechanical power extracted. Hence a low-efficiency expander will produce less power but will require less additional fuel to be burned to supply the required process heat.
Nonetheless, a high expander efficiency for any given type of machine is desirable because more power will be produced for roughly the same size unit and hence the capital cost per unit output will be minimised.
Food Processing: Regional and National Market
The economics of this process then depend on the relative difference between the cost of electricity obtained from the utility and that of the fuel being burned. Typically, the cost per kilowatt-hour of electricity supplied by the grid is 3—4 times the cost per kilowatt-hour of heat derived from the burning of natural gas. Electricity generated by this means is, therefore, not obtained for zero fuel cost but for somewhere in the region of one-third that of electricity supplied by the utility. Screw expanders have some distinct advantages for such applications, which are generally for power outputs of only a few hundred kilowatts, namely:.
An example of such a screw expander application is given in Fig.
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