This was soon followed by other universities, including the University of Cambridge establishing its Sc D in the same year and the University of London transforming its DSc into a research degree in These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the Ph D level—Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge Sc D was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society".
In the English but not the Scottish universities, the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals, the legal training for the common law system was provided by the Inns of Court with some minor exceptions, see Doctors' Commons , and few students undertook formal study in theology. The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences from a lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine.
Similar developments occurred in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries e. Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a Ph D in the sciences or humanities. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its Ph D program.
By the s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. By , Ph Ds were awarded annually, most of them by six universities. Degrees awarded by universities without legitimate Ph D programs accounted for about a third of the doctorates recorded by the U.
The lack of centralised authority meant anyone could start a university and award Ph Ds. In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government.
The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals.
After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees.
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Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities. Detailed requirements for the award of a Ph D degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school.
It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a Ph D program. In other countries such as the UK there is generally no such condition, though this varies by university and field. Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a bachelor's degree or equivalent or higher. In order to submit a successful Ph D admission application, copies of academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal statement are often required.
Most universities also invite for a special interview before admission. A candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context. In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and any issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed.
Some universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph. A Ph D student or candidate is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode.
In a "sandwich Ph D" program, Ph D candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the Ph D candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or field research. The lecture follows after a suitable topic has been identified, and can include such matters as the aim of the research, methodology, first results, planned or finished publications, etc. The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely influence the direction of the research.
At the end of the lecture, the Ph D candidate can be seen as "confirmed" — faculty members give their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with high probability result in the candidate being successful. In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy, the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination. A career in academia generally requires a Ph D, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate.
In North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a Ph D, because the percentage of faculty with a Ph D is used as a university ratings measure. The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases, this is not the result. While this is a small return to the individual or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted for , he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.
These difficulties are increasingly being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school, looking to find employment.
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A Ph D is also required in some positions outside academia, such as research jobs in major international agencies. In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a Ph D A Ph D is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign policy think-tanks: U.
News wrote in that "[i]f having a master's degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington's foreign policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the Ph D is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to potential employers. These included a prediction by economist Richard B. According to the article, only the fastest developing countries e. The US higher education system often offers little incentive to move students through Ph.
To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualising Ph. This development can be seen in the extensive number of Ph. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since , the Eng D.
Taylor opined in in Nature that total reform of Ph. In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" Doktor , and the subject area is distinguished by a Latin suffix e. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to 'doctor' should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph For international comparability purposes, the term 'doctoral or equivalent' is used to label ISCED level 8".
In Argentina, the admission to a Ph D program at public Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate degree. Non-Argentine Master's titles are generally accepted into a Ph D program when the degree comes from a recognized university. While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States OAS , have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.
Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee.
This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation.
The standard requirement is a bachelor's degree with either first-class or upper second-class honors. It was replaced by Research Training Program RTP , awarded to students of "exceptional research potential", which provides a living stipend to students of approximately A, a year tax-free. RTPs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6-month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.
It is also possible for research master's degree students to 'upgrade' to Ph. In addition to the more common RTP and university scholarships, Australian students have other sources of scholarship funding, coming from industry, private enterprise, and organisations. Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their Ph. The credit points attached to the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an 80,word thesis that makes a significant new contribution to the field. Recent pressure on higher degree by research HDR students to publish has resulted in increasing interest in Ph.
D by publication as opposed to the more traditional Ph. D by dissertation, which typically requires a minimum of two publications, but which also requires traditional thesis elements such as an introductory exegesis, and linking chapters between papers. Examiners are nominated by the candidate's university and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be travelled by the overseas examiners; however, since , some there is a trend toward implementing this in many Australian universities.
Admission to a doctoral programme at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a Ph. An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examinations scores. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program.
Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee or a separate qualifying committee , or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area see below or both. At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination for example the Test of English as a Foreign Language.
Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability. While some students work outside the university or at student jobs within the university , in some programs students are advised or must agree not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities e. It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage.
The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities.
Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams. From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph.
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At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a Ph. Alternative arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form.
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